Go directly to legislation of specific CAM therapies in Croatia:
Acupuncture – Anthroposophic medicine – Ayurveda – Chiropractic – Herbal medicine/Phytotherapy –
Homeopathy – Massage – Naprapathy – Naturopathy – Neural therapy – Osteopathy – Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) – Other treatments
Croatia became an independent state in 1991 following the dissolution of the former Yugoslavia, has been listed as a candidate country for EU membership since June 2004, and the country will become the 28th EU member country on 1 July 2013 (52). Croatia has been a member of the Council of Europe since 1996 (12).
The legal and regulatory status of CAM and CAM practices
According to CRONES (Croatian federation for natural energy and spiritual medicine) there is no legal regulation of unconventional medicine in Croatia (64). From 2004 until today there have been different unsuccessful attempts at making legal regulation of CAM in Croatia (64).
However, there seems to be consensus on having a separate legislation for CAM separate
from the Law on Health Care (64). The Criminal Law, article 244, mentions “quackery”:
(1) Whoever, lacking prescribed, professional qualifications, medically treats another or
renders medical aid to such a person shall be punished by a fine of up to one hundred and fifty daily incomes or by imprisonment not exceeding six months.
(2) Whoever commits the criminal offence referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article for
remuneration or pecuniary gain shall be punished by a fine or by imprisonment not exceeding one year (65).
Consequently CRONES claims that no one without medical qualifications may treat people (64). Further CRONES claims that CAM practitioners may only contribute to life quality improvement and they may advise the clients to do a medical check-up.
The practice of CAM can, however, be seen as regulated under Croatian government law
from 31 May 2007, “the Law of national classification of services” (66, 67). Healthcare
practitioners not statutorily regulated are registered under a separate code nr 2007/ 86.9 “Other services for health protection” (in 2002 code 85.14 “Other services for human medicine”). Practitioners may provide more than one healthcare service, but must list one therapy as their main service (67).
The European Central Council of Homeopaths (ECCH) has forwarded clarifying information on the interpretations of the Criminal Law, Quackery paragraph in September 2011. They write that Article 244 cover regulations for persons with NO education or diplomas but who claim to be conventional healthcare practitioners. ECCH writes that there is no law restricting the practice of CAM therapies in Croatia and CAM practitioners practise under “law of national classification of services”.
The governmental supervision of CAM Practices
There is no supervision of CAM practitioners (according to CRONES)(64).
The reimbursement status of CAM practices and medicinal products
No CAM treatments or CAM medicinal products are reimbursed in Croatia (64).
1. Wiesener S, Fønnebø V, editors. CAMbrella- a pan-European research network for
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM); FP7 – HEALTH-2009, GA No.241951; Work Package 2 (WP2): Deliverable 9 – Legal status and regulation of CAM in Europe, 2012.
12. Council of Europe. Council of Europe. Strasbourg: Council of Europe; 2011 [cited 2011
November 7]; Available from: http://www.coe.int/lportal/web/coe-portal.
52. The European Commission. European commission enlargement. Brussels: EUROPA; 2012 [cited 2012 October 16]; Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/index_en.htm.
64. CRONES. The position of unconventional medicine in Croatia. Zagreb: CRONES (Croatian fedration for natural, energy and spiritual medicine); 2010 [cited 2011 5 September]; Available from: http://www.huped.hr/englishlaw.asp.
65. The Official Gazette of the Republic of Croatia “Narodne novine”(hereinafter: NN) No. 110 of October 21, 1997 (entered into force on January 1, 1998), (1997/2003).
66. VLADA REPUBLIKE HRVATSKE: Na temelju članka 4. stavka 2. Zakona o Nacionalnoj klasifikaciji djelatnosti (»Narodne novine«, broj 98/94), Vlada Republike Hrvatske je na sjednici održanoj 31. svibnja 2007. Godine donijela ODLUKU O NACIONALNOJ KLASIFIKACIJI JELATNOSTI 2007. – NKD 2007. Law of national classification of services., (2007).
67. Viksveen P, ECCH (European Central Council of Homeopaths). Email: Legal situation for CAM in Croatia. 2011.
68. NACIONALNA KLASIFIKACIJA DJELATNOSTI 2007. Other services for health protection. Sect. NKD 86.9 (2007).