Go directly to legislation of specific CAM therapies in Liechtenstein:
Acupuncture – Anthroposophic medicine – Ayurveda – Chiropractic – Herbal medicine/Phytotherapy – Homeopathy – Massage – Naprapathy – Naturopathy – Neural therapy – Osteopathy – Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) - Other treatments
Liechtenstein has been a member of The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) since 1960, and became a full participant of The European Economic Area (EEA) from 1 May 1995. Liechtenstein is included in the CAMbrella survey through The European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) Third Country Agreement: EFTA: (Article 1 of protocol 31 of the EEA agreement amended on 15 June 2007 by a decision of the EEA Joint Committee).
The legal and regulatory status of CAM and CAM practices
The new health care law, “Gesundheitsgesetz” (GesG) of 2007, introduces the new profession and protected title “Naturheilpraktiker”(185). Practise of homeopathy, naturopathy and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) must be practised by a registered “Naturheilpraktiker” (50, 185). Chiropractic, medicinal massage and physiotherapy are regulated professions (185). Details about the regulation of the above professions are found in the Gesundheitsverordnung (GesV) of 2008 (186).
CAM treatment is restricted to legally regulated health personnel (21). To be registered documentation must be provided to prove they have carried out education which enables them to practise the therapy in question. Non-medical providers using complementary medicine are regularly prosecuted, but overall Liechtenstein is practising a tolerant system for providers of “natural medicine” (21, 43).
Liechtenstein follows most of the Swiss regulation of CAM education, approval of training institutions and registration as CAM practitioners (186).
According to the health law of 2007 (185) license to practise homeopathy, TCM or the European traditional naturopathy is provided according to regulations of the newly regulated profession “Naturheilpraktiker”. Licence is given by “Amt für Gesundheit” based on authorization from a governmental approved educational institution and a following statutory exam (185). Licence as Naturheilpraktiker with homeopathy, TCM or naturopathy specialty is depending on educational regulations and registration in Switzerland and the Swiss exam for each of the treatments (186).
The governmental supervision of CAM Practices
Patient safety is managed by “Amt für Gesundheit” (185).
The reimbursement status of CAM practices and medicinal products
Except for homeopathy, CAM is not covered by the health insurance system. CAM treatment may unofficially be covered if provided by regulated health care personnel.
Private insurance may cover some CAM therapies (21, 43).
By November 2011 we could not find that the profession Naturheilpraktiker was included in the reimbursement regulations.
21. Maddalena S. Alternative medicines: on the way towards integration?; A comparative legal analysis in Western countries. Bern: University of Neuchâtel School of Law and Economics, Peter Lang Pub, Inc; 2005. 648 p.
43. Ersdal G, CAM-CANCER consortium. How are European patients safeguarded when using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)? Jurisdiction, supervision and reimbursement status in the EEA area (EU and EFTA) and Switzerland. Tromsø: NAFKAM, University of Tromsø 2005 28 October Report No.: Report CAM 21.11.05-1.doc.
50. ECCH. The Legal Situation for the Practice of Homeopathy in Europe; An ECCH report; Oct 2010; Revised Edition 2011,. Brussels: European Central Council of Homeopaths 2010.
185. Gesundheitsgesetz (GesG) vom 13.Dezember 2007. Liechtensteinisches Landesgesetzblatt 811.01, Jahrgang 2008, Nr. 30, am 31 Januar 2008, Parliament of Liechtenstein(2007).
186. Gesundheitsverordnung(GesV) vom 29. Januar 2008. Liechtensteinisches Landesgesetzblatt 811.011, Jahrgang 2008, Nr. 39, am 1 Februar 2008, Parliament of Liechtenstein(2008).