Go directly to legislation of specific CAM therapies in Luxembourg:
Acupuncture – Anthroposophic medicine – Ayurveda – Chiropractic – Herbal medicine/Phytotherapy – Homeopathy – Massage – Naprapathy – Naturopathy – Neural therapy – Osteopathy – Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) - Other treatments
Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union since 1952 (11), and a founding member of the Council of Europe on 5 May 1949 (12).
The legal and regulatory status of CAM and CAM practices
Treatment is restricted to legally regulated health personnel (both doctors and other regulated health personnel) in Luxembourg (41, 43). CAM in general is not regulated (43).
The act of 29 April 1983 on the professions of doctors, dentists and veterinarians regulates the practice of medicine. Authorization is given by the Minister of Health, issued on the advice of the medical college (196). According to article 7, only doctors may provide treatment, diagnosis and prevention of disease.
Persons who practise or participate in the diagnosis or treatment of real or supposed pathological disorders through personal acts, oral or written consultations and without the required qualifications and authorizations can be prosecuted (28, 196). The Act of 14 July 2010 harmonizes the provisions of Directive 2005/36/EC on the recognition of professional qualifications of the professions of doctor, dentist, veterinary surgeon, pharmacist and certain other health professions (197).
The Code of Professional Ethics states that it is unethical for allopathic physicians to recommend, to either their patients or acquaintances, therapies that are based on illusory methods or which are not scientifically proven (44). The Code de la Santé (The Code of Health) compiles the legislation in the field of Health. It is regularly updated so as to present the state of such act, regulation, order or other normative act on the day of its date of update. The Health Portal (www.sante.lu ) also offers a set of laws in the field of Health and Social.
The modified law of 29 April 1983 regulates doctors, dentist and veterinarians (198). The modified law of 26 March 1992 regulates certain regulated health professions like nurse, masseur, midwife and physiotherapist (199). The exercise of these professions requires a licence issued by the Minister of Health under the following conditions: the candidate must hold a diploma in Luxembourg on the relevant profession, or a foreign degree recognized by the Minister of National Education or the Minister of Higher Education (199).
A national of a Member State of the European Community, established in another Member State of the Community, with an European professions subject to an EU directive on mutual recognition of degrees, can practise in Luxembourg in service delivery activities of selfemployed without the profession concerned obtaining authorization from the Minister (199).
The person authorized to exercise one of these professions has the professional title corresponding to that profession. The person authorized to exercise one of these professions must be registered by the Department of Health (199).
It is highly possible that the practise of unregulated techniques (see below) implicates actions/manipulations that fall under the sphere of competence of a regulated health profession. Thus the practise of such actions/manipulations can only be carried out by a health professional authorized to practise by the Minister of Health. Persons who don’t have an authorization to practise and carry out such actions/manipulations face possible prosecution (200).
The governmental supervision of CAM Practices
The Ministry of Health supervises the application of the provisions of the modified law of 26 March 1992 (199). A higher council for the health care professions governed by this law supervises the adherence of these professionals to the code of ethics and is the competent authority for disciplinary actions against these professionals (199).
The reimbursement status of CAM practices
Homeopathy is not officially reimbursed, but may be covered if provided by a recognized health personnel (41).
11. EUROPA. Gateway to the European Union; member countries. Brussels EUROPA
Communication department of the European Commission; 2011 [cited 2011 November 3]; Available from: http://europa.eu/about-eu/countries/index_en.htm.
12. Council of Europe. Council of Europe. Strasbourg: Council of Europe; 2011 [cited 2011
November 7]; Available from: http://www.coe.int/lportal/web/coe-portal.
28. ECH (European Committee for Homeopathy). ECH in European Countries. Brussels: ECH; 2011 [cited 2011 September 12]; Available from: http://www.homeopathyeurope.org/countries.
41. ECHAMP. Homeopathy and anthroposophic medicine in the EU: Facts and Figures 2011 (Third edition). In: European Coalition on Homeopathic and Anthroposophic Medical Products, editor. Third ed. Brussels: ECHAMP E.E.I.G.; 2011.
43. Ersdal G, CAM-CANCER consortium. How are European patients safeguarded when using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)? Jurisdiction, supervision and reimbursement status in the EEA area (EU and EFTA) and Switzerland. Tromsø: NAFKAM, University of Tromsø 2005 28 October Report No.: Report CAM 21.11.05-1.doc.
44. Legal Status of Traditional Medicine and Complementary/Alternative Medicine : A Worldwide Review [database on the Internet]. World Health Organization. 2001 [cited 9 March 2010]. Available from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2001/WHO_EDM_TRM_2001.2.pdf, http://hinfo.humaninfo.ro/gsdl/whohss/1.00.0000/en/d/Jh2943e/.
196. Le Ministre de la Santé, Le Ministre de la Justice. Mémorial A n° 31 de 1983; Act of 29 April 1983 on the professions of doctors, dentists and veterinarians; Loi du 29 avril 1983 concernant l’exercice des professions de médecin, de médecin-dentiste et de médecin-vétérinaire. modifiée par: Loi du 27 juillet 1992 et Loi du 31 juillet 1995; Texte coordonné: Mém. A – 84 du 10 octobre 1995, p.1802. Château de Berg,: MEMORIAL Journal Officiel du Grand-Duché Luxembourg; 1983 [cited 2012 February 29]; Available from: http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/1983/0031/index.html.
198. De Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Exercice des professions médicales; Recueil de legislation A – N° 160 30 août; Texte coordonné de la loi du 29 avril 1983 concernant l’exercice des professions de médecin, de médecin-dentiste et de médecin-vétérinaire. Memorial Journal Officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg 2010 [cited 2012 March 26]; Available from: http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2010/0160/a160.pdf#page=2.
199. e Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Exercice de certaines professions de santé; Recueil de ligslations A –– N° 83 6 mai 2011; Texte coordonné de la loi modifiée du 26 mars 1992 sur l’exercice et la revalorisation de certaines professions de santé. Memorial Journal Officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg 2011 [cited 2012 March 26]; Available from: http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2011/0083/a083.pdf#page=2